Words I Did Not Know Department
Knout. Noun. Russian. A cat o' nine tails-type whip, used for corporal punishment in Russia under the Czars. A hundred blows with it would be lethal. This device became a symbol of the cruelty of Czarist government. Wikipedia entry. 1911 Britannica entry. See also: sjambok. Tyrannical regimes seem to like whips of various kinds.
See, I was looking up stuff on Chinese eunuchs, which led me to the Skoptzy cult, whose founder was knouted.
恭敬== kyoukei == (noun) respect, reverence,
|Bottom radical is 'heart/feelings'.(心), top radical is 'together' (共), used here in its literal meaning of 'hands offering up a precious object'. Henshall suggests as a mnemonic: 'Respectful feelings go together with giving.'|